Definition: To cause a quantity of light to fall on sensitive material that is lower than specified or intended. * This can be because, for a given material's emulsion speed and level of ambient light: the (a) shutter time is too short for a given aperture or (b) effective aperture is too small for a given shutter time; or (c) flash exposure, if used, is too low or (d) flash exposure, if used, is wrongly synchronised or (e) losses due to use of filters or lens extension, etc., were not corrected for or (f) as a result of any combination of these. * Distinguished by low density in the mid-tones of a negative and overly flat mid-tones in prints or reversal materials.

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