Definition: To develop photographic material to an extent less than specified or intended. * Caused by (a) development stage that is too short in duration or (b) working chemicals being too dilute, exhausted or contaminated or (c) working chemicals being too low in temperature or (d) insufficient agitation during development or (e) use of inappropriate chemistry for the materials or (f) any combination of these. * Distinguished by low-contrast, low density image.

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