Definition: Lighting unit used to provide medium-soft frontal lighting to the subject, with minimal shadow. * Consists of one or more electronic flash-tubes bent into semi-circle or circle like a ring doughnut -- i.e. a torus -- which is large enough to allow the lens to look through the central gap. * May, e.g. in endoscopy, use bundle of fibre optics wrapped around the lens. * Units may be very small and battery-powered for field use or as larger mains-powered units for studio. * Used for close-up photography and also in portraiture or fashion. * Also known as ring light.

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